Intervals By Joe Friel

The Cyclist’s Training Bible“、”The Triathlete’s Training Bible” などで有名な Joe Friel がインターバルトレーニングについて一連の記事(力作)を書いてくれたので、そのまとめ。



  • インターバルトレーニングが highly-trained atheletes にとっていかに効果的か
  • インターバルの種類と効果
  • 各インターバルをどのようにピリオダイゼーションに組み込むか

Part 1

インターバルトレーニングの研究に関する代表的なレビューとして オーストラリア Queensland 大学の Laursen と Jenkins によるものがある。

Laursen PB, Jenkins DG. “The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimising training programmes and maximising performance in highly trained endurance athletes.” Sports Med. 2002;32(1):53-73.

Increased volume for highly trained athletes does not appear to further enhance endurance performance or associated physiological variables.
For athletes who are already trained, improvements in endurance can be achieved only through high-intensity interval training.

Joe の記事の中では端折られているけれども、レビューでは一般(sedentary/recreationally active)アスリートのことも書かれている。

significant improvements in endurance performance and corresponding physiological markers are evident following submaximal endurance training in sedentary and recreationally active groups

一方で、highly trained athletes の場合には ” does not appear to further enhance either endurance performance or associated physiological variables” のため、先ほどの interval training の登場というストーリーになっている。

the key to success for advanced athletes is intensity – not volume.

Part 2

アマチュアアスリートは intensity よりも volume を追求する人が多い。
Joe はその理由を “The reason most rely so heavily on volume as a marker of improvement is that it’s easy to measure and quantify”と推測。
一方で intensity は定量評価が難しい(そのために Training Stress Score(TSS) があるわけだが、記事の中では触れられていない)


  • intensity
  • duration
  • volume


duration が長くなるにつれて intensity は落とさなければならない。

long & slow なワークアウトと short & fast なワークアウトがあり、後者にはインターバルトレーニングがふさわしい。

“Specificity Principle” の観点からは race-specific なトレーニングが好ましい
とはいえ、毎回のトレーニングでレースとおなじことをやるのは難しい。(“You would soon implode” )
ただし、レースをブレークダウンして、練習の一部分を race ペースでこなすことなら可能。(“The primary purpose of doing intervals is to prepare for the stresses of the race.” — Part 4 から)

Part 3
Cross Training と Specificity Principle がテーマ。

クロストレーニングは効果は期待できないこと(ここでも Specificity Principle)、したがってトライアスロンであれば3種目で適切なストレスを与えないといけないことが解説される。



there is some research that indicates this is probably happening. But the cross-training benefits are not very great. It still comes down to specificity.
If you want to become a better runner the best way to accomplish that is by running, not biking and swimming.

これと同じ趣旨の記事が、つい最近の “The New York Times” でも掲載されている
“Perks of Cross-Training May End Before Finish Line” 2011/8/15

Studies comparing athletes, both trained and untrained, had found that only one factor mattered if performance was the goal: training in that sport.


Tanaka H. “Effects of cross-training. Transfer of training effects on VO2max between cycling, running and swimming.” Sports Med. 1994 Nov;18(5):330-9.



Trying to train for 3 sports with a fixed amount of training time and energy means something must be cut out. There is always hope that there is some cross-over effect between sports.
Given their limited training per sport, triathletes should come to rely on intervals, especially those done at race intensity, more so than mono-sport athletes.
Every mile must accomplish something positive.
So the fewer hours you have available to train the more important intervals become.


Part 4 & 5
Part 4& 5 はインターバルの用語&種類の解説


Work Interval(WI)
The high-intensity portions f the workout.

Recovery Interval(RI)
The low-intensity, rest periods between the WI.

  • cardiovascular/aerobic endurance system -> the RI are short
  • nervous and muscular systems -> the RI are long

Work Interval Volume(WIV)
the combined time of the WI within a single workout.

6 abilities
インターバルトレーニングで鍛えるべき ability として以下の6つがある(basic x 3 + advanced x 3)。

(上の画像は Joe Friel 氏のブログから拝借。vertex が Basic Abilities, edge が Advanced Abilities)

3 basic abilities

  1. Aerobic Endurance(improve the athlete’s ability to use oxygen to produce movement)
  2. Muscular Force(increase the athlete’s ability to overcome resistance usually in the form of water, wind, and hills.)
  3. Speed Skills(improve efficiency by improving movement skills)

3 advanced abilities

  1. Muscular endurance(prepares the athlete for a steady, long race effort as when in a running race or bike time trial)
  2. Anaerobic endurance(boost aerobic capacity (VO2max), economy, and anaerobic threshold)
  3. Sprint power(used in non-steady state events in which the outcomes are determined by brief, maximal efforts)

periodization のトレーニングを組んでいることが前提で、適切な period に各 ability に特化したインターバルを Basic -> Advanced とこなす。

The key here is to keep all of the components of your personal training system cohesive and coordinated

各インターバルの具体的なプロトコルは basic abilities であれば Part4、advanced abilities であれば Part 5 を参照のこと。


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